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0 comments by SpeedyClaude on Aug 30th, 2012

A lepton is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.[1] The best known of all leptons is the electron which governs nearly all of chemistry as it is found in atoms and is directly tied to all chemical properties. Two main classes of leptons exist:charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos). Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium, while neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed.There are six types of leptons, known as flavours, forming three generations.[2] The first generation is the electronic leptons, comprising the electron (e-) and electron neutrino
e); the second is the muonic leptons, comprising the muon (μ-) and muon neutrino
μ); and the third is the tauonic leptons, comprising the tau (τ-) and the tau neutrino
τ). Electrons have the least mass of all the charged leptons. The heavier muons and taus will rapidly change into electrons through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Thus electrons are stable and the most common charged lepton in the universe, whereas muons and taus can only be produced in high energy collisions (such as those involving cosmic rays and those carried out in particle accelerators).Leptons have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge, spin, and mass. Unlike quarks however, leptons are not subject to the strong interaction, but they are subject to the other three fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism (excluding neutrinos, which are electrically neutral), and the weak interaction. For every lepton flavor there is a corresponding type of antiparticle, known as antilepton, that differs from the lepton only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign. However, according to certain theories, neutrinos may be their own antiparticle, but it is not currently known whether this is the case or not.The first charged lepton, the electron, was theorized in the mid-19th century by several scientists[3][4][5] and was discovered in 1897 byJ. J. Thomson.[6] The next lepton to be observed was the muon, discovered by Carl D. Anderson in 1936, but it was erroneously classified as a meson at the time.[7] After investigation, it was realized that the muon did not have the expected properties of a meson, but rather behaved like an electron, only with higher mass. It took until 1947 for the concept of "leptons" as a family of particle to be proposed.[8] The first neutrino, the electron neutrino, was proposed by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to explain certain characteristics of beta decay.[8] It was first observed in the Cowan-Reines neutrino experiment conducted by Clyde Cowan and Frederick Reines in 1956.[8][9]The muon neutrino was discovered in 1962 by Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger,[10] and the tau discovered between 1974 and 1977 by Martin Lewis Perl and his colleagues from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.[11] The tau neutrino remained elusive until July 2000, when the DONUT collaboration from Fermilab announced its discovery.[12][13]Leptons are an important part of the Standard Model. Electrons are one of the components of atoms, alongside protons and neutrons.Exotic atoms with muons and taus instead of electrons can also be synthesized, as well as lepton-antilepton particles such aspositronium.

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Post comment Comments  (0 - 10 of 103)
EXU_SKULLY Jul 27 2015 says:

i gave you 1 internut now gibi da pussy b0ss

+1 vote     reply to comment
TheUnbeholden Dec 23 2013 says:

SpeedyClaude, removed from HL2 critics removed for not posting 10 reviews eventhough you did give scores for many mods, scores is not enough, you must post a actual critique along with it.

+1 vote     reply to comment
SpeedyClaude Creator
SpeedyClaude Jan 26 2014 replied:

Sorry for that, but I've got a lot of problems to deal with now.
Will review some mods in my spare time ( when I'll have it).

+1 vote   reply to comment
asif_ridwan Aug 21 2012 says:

FX 4100 Quad Core 3.6 GHz is really a good CPU. Anyway, if you're using AMD then you're likely to have an ATI on-board GPU (As ATI is a product of AMD corp and works best with AMD CPUs) and not any Intel. BTW for gaming it's best you buy External Bulit Out GPUs and NVidia will be very great. You can try GT 440 , GT 520 or GT 530. GT 520 is quite cheap, about 3800 BDT is the regular price and sometimes 4000 BDT here in Bangladesh and GT 440 and GT 530 is about 6000-8000 BDT. You can buy GT 520, it will be very good for you as it has Pixel Shader 5.0 and supports Direct X 11. If you can overclock it then you can run many games with all settings high. Just check your GPU manual or box to see what's the overclocking tool. Such as msi Afterburner or Gigabyte Easy Boost.

0 votes     reply to comment
asif_ridwan Jul 30 2012 says:

Oh hi again, here is a model PC spec you may like, well it's my PC spec, I bought it couple of months ago,

Mother Board : Intel DZ77SL-50K
CPU : Intel Core i5 2550K (Quad Core) 3.4 GHz
GPU : XFX AMD Radeon HD 6770 2GB DDR5
RAM : Corsair 8GB DDR3 (2GB DDR3 per Slot) 1333 MHz
OS : Windows 7 Ultimate (32 Bit / X68) Service Pack 1

0 votes     reply to comment
Wheatley_Core Oct 25 2014 replied:

why 3 replies got down vote?

0 votes     reply to comment
SpeedyClaude Creator
SpeedyClaude Aug 19 2012 replied:

It's great!

0 votes   reply to comment
asif_ridwan Aug 22 2012 replied:


0 votes     reply to comment
asif_ridwan Jul 26 2012 says:

Hey Man, It's a very good happy birthday to you! :) As birthday special I suggest you buy Quad CPU and Intel will be the best so buy Core i5 and for graphics card buy Nvidia GTX 400/500/600 series such as GTX 560 Ti. Anyways enjoy your day and have a blast =)

0 votes     reply to comment
JustACoolGuy Apr 25 2012 says:

thanks for asking i said yes :3

+1 vote     reply to comment
SpeedyClaude Creator
SpeedyClaude May 2 2012 replied:

Thank you for thanking me ! :3

+1 vote   reply to comment
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