It was an empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe , Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries . It was founded at the end of the 13th century in Anatolia in the town of Sogut by Osman I . After 1354 , the Ottomans crossed into Europe and managed to conquer the Balkans . In 1453 , the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire after the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmet the Conqueror . In the 15th and 16th centuries , the Ottoman Empire entered a period of expansion that started under the rule of sultan Selim I . Selim I expanded the Empire's eastern and southern frontiers by defeating shah Ismail of Safavid Persia in the Battle of Chaldiran . After Selim headed towards Egypt and defeated the Mamelukes , Selim established an Ottoman rule in Egypt , and created a naval presence on the Red Sea . Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent represented the golden age of the empire . He captured Belgrade in 1521 , Rhodes in 1522 and after his historic victory in the Battle of Mohács in 1526 , he conquered the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Hungary . Also Suleiman laid siege to Vienna in 1529 , but failed to take the city . In 1532 , he made another try but didn't succeed again . Ottoman admiral Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeated the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538 . Suleiman was dead in 1566 after the last successful conquest he made which was the fort of Szigetvár .
The holy roman empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars . The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany , though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia , the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy and numerous other territories . In 1516 , when Ferdinand II of Aragon died . Charles initiated his reign in Castile and Aragon , a union which evolved into Spain , but Charles's reign in the Holy Roman Empire didnt begin before 1517 . Charles V continued to battle the French and the Protestant princes in Germany for much of his reign. After his son Philip married Queen Mary of England , it appeared that France would be completely surrounded by Habsburg domains . In 1555 , Paul IV was elected pope and took the side of France , whereupon an exhausted Charles finally gave up his hopes of a world Christian empire . He abdicated and divided his territories between Philip and Ferdinand of Austria . On the other side , the bloody holy war has been risen between Muslims represented by the Ottomans and Christians represented by the Holy league where the Turks had defeated the Hungarians at Mohacs and marched to conquer the city of Vienna .
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