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Day of Remembrance) is on the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram.[6] This day is celebrated by Sunni Muslims (who refer to it as The Day of Atonement) as the day on which the Israelites were freed from the Pharaoh (called 'Firaun' in Arabic) of Egypt. However, Shi'a Muslims reject these stories and maintain that Ashura is a day of great sorrow due to the tragic events of Karbala.

It is commemorated by Shi'a Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH ( in AHt: October 10, 680 CE). The massacre of Husayn with a small group of his companions and family members had a great impact on the religious conscience of Muslims. Especially Shia Muslims have ever remembered it with sorrow and passion.[7] Mourning for Husayn and his companions began almost immediately after the Battle of Karbala, by his survivor relatives and supporters. Popular elegies were made by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyads and Abbasids era. The earliest public mourning rituals happened in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty.[8] Nowadays, in some countries such as Afghanistan,[9] Iran,[10] Iraq,[11] Lebanon,[12] Bahrain,[13] and Pakistan,[14] the Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a national holiday and most ethnic and religious communities participate in it.[15][16] In India, Ashura (10th day in the month of Muharram) is commemorated and is a public holiday due to the presence of a significant Indian Shia Muslim population (2-3% of total population, 20-25% of Indian Muslim population)

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