Shiny Entertainment is a video game development studio based in Newport Beach, California (US). Shiny was founded in 1993 by David Perry after he left London for the US. The company was originally known for its original and humorous games, such as the Earthworm Jim series, which spawned a successful line of action figures, comic books and a syndicated television cartoon series on the Universal Cartoon Studios/Warner Kids Network. Shiny was acquired by Interplay in 1995 and in the following 5 years they released MDK (1997), Wild 9 (1999), Messiah (2000) and Sacrifice (2000). The critics' acclaim for their titles was not always reflected in the sales numbers, and in 2002 the company was acquired by Infogrames (later Atari), which meant a drastic change for the company's focus. Shiny released two games based on the Matrix films franchise: Enter the Matrix (2003) and The Matrix: Path of Neo. Although less polished than their previous games, those were Shiny's biggest successes.