"In landing operations, retreat is impossible, to surrender is as ignoble as it is foolish. above all else remember that we as attackers have the initiative, we know exactly what we are going to do, while the enemy is ignorant of our intentions and can only parry our blows. We must retain this tremendous advantage by always attacking rapidly, ruthlessly, viciously, and without rest." - General George S. Patton, Jr.
Where Roland Emmerich and Dean Devlin failed spectacularly, Gareth Edwards has succeeded. Although the 2014 edition of Godzilla isn't the be-all and end-all of monster movies, it's a respectable big-budget effort. Most importantly for legions of fans across the globe, it's a Godzilla movie, honoring not only the look and feel of the Big Green Lizard's most famous outings but paying homage to his entire history. Many of the wrongs committed by Emmerich and Devlin are corrected here. If only the 3-D had been abandoned...
This incarnation of Godzilla transpires in the same universe where at least some of the Toho Godzilla movies were set. It explicitly references the 1954 debut feature and refers to the title creature by the name of "Godzilla." At the very least, that should allay some of the die-hard fans' worst fears that this movie might continue from where the universally despised 1998 film left off. That GINO (Godzilla in name only) has not been exhumed from its shallow grave.
In many ways, Godzilla is a cousin to Edwards' earlier movie, Monsters, in that it focuses more on the ineffectual humans than the monsters. Godzilla is a force of nature like a hurricane or a tornado. Men can prepare for him and execute search and rescue missions, but there's not a lot they can do to stop him. And, while we're treated to several epic lizard-on-giant insect skirmishes, these are observed from the human vantage point. The movie is about Godzilla but it's not viewed from Godzilla's perspective.
The movie takes its time with the big reveal, keeping Godzilla mostly hidden until about midway through the movie. The early scenes transpire 15 years in the past in Japan, where unexplained tremors are threatening the integrity of a nuclear power plant. The husband and wife team of Joe and Sandra Brody (Bryan Cranston and Juliette Binoche) are tasked with investigating the situation and preventing a disaster. Later, in the present day, the Brodys' now-adult son, Ford (Aaron Taylor Johnson), finds himself in the same part of the world facing a similar situation. But this time, things go beyond the ground shaking and collapsing. A huge insect-like creature, mutated by radiation, rises up and wreaks havoc before going in search of its mate. And an unknown creature out to sea, attracted by the activity, begins to make its way toward land. Las Vegas, Hawaii, and San Francisco end up in the pathway of one or more of the monsters.
Godzilla offers a slow build-up, punctuated by various teasing moments, many of which pay homage to classic monster movies. It provides us with the time and opportunity to get to know the humans before the monsters start rampaging. For Ford, we get a fairly compete backstory, seeing him as a boy facing the evacuation of his home and the destruction of his lifestyle, then as an adult with a family of his own. Aaron Taylor-Johnson isn't asked to do much more than be an all-around good guy willing to sacrifice himself - a role he capably fills. Juliette Binoche makes the most of very limited screen time. Bryan Cranston, despite looking odd with a full head of hair, offers a considerably toned down performance from what Breaking Bad viewers might expect. Elizabeth Olsen, soon to join The Avengers alongside Taylor-Johnson, is wasted as Ford's wife, who has pretty much nothing to do except look worried. One of the greatest points of interest, especially among Godzilla fans, is whether Edwards' version of the creature honors its roots (which the Emmerich/Devlin incarnation didn't) - something it achieves. The Godzilla of this movie is strongly based on the 1954 version but without the "man in a suit" element. This looks how one might expect a giant radioactive dinosaur to appear in this age of top caliber CGI. The iconic roar has been changed to make it deeper and more "throaty." In general, the special effects are excellent, although it's baffling why this was post-converted to 3-D. I know I sound like a broken record but it adds nothing. To the extent that summer movies are all about mayhem and destruction, Godzilla delivers everything expected of it, and perhaps a little more. At the very least, it argues that Hollywood can deliver a Godzilla movie without completely screwing up. Monsters postulated that Edwards might be the man for the job and Godzilla has vindicated his selection. The movie has its weaknesses (the build-up is too long and some of the subplots could have been truncated) but it works. This may not exactly be the Godzilla I grew up with but it's a more than acceptable upgrade. Reelviews.net
- Storm states that multicore support will not strongly influence game performance
- Storm states that the supertest patchnotes are not final: “there is a long way to go till the patch goes live”
- regarding the “hidden Sherman nerf” in 9.0, it was intended, but Storm states that the fact it did not appear in patchnotes first was a mistake of the program, that generates the list of tank changes for the patchnotes. They fixed it and Storm hopes it won’t repeat itself.
- a player asked that there are rumors about a mod, that actually makes the game display tank silhouette even beyond the official render range, Storm replies that that would be possible only if the mod actually takes the tank position beyond the render range from the minimap, eg. such mod won’t display tank and turret orientation
- regarding sharp FPS drops with the shadows enabled: “Shadows eat resources and that’s something we can’t do anything about”
- Storm confirms that there are sharp FPS drop issues (“freezes”) after a tank is discovered (SS: “lit up” – probably meant when an enemy tank is discovered), they are working on a fix
- Yurko2F states that there is no need to be hysterical about the nerfs, players should try the nerfed vehicles first on the test, a lot of parameters did not change
- statistically, when considering tank buff or nerf, results of players with winrates from 45 percent to 65 percent are taken into account, this range is also internally divided for statistics purposes
- when balancing tanks, the most important category of players WG aims at are “daddies” (SS: a Russian general term for men, who come home from work and want to spend a few battles in WoT, eg. not schoolkids or students)
- Storm states that roughly 10-20 percent of shots fired are gold rounds, these statistics are very dependent on tank measured and vary wildly from tank to tank
- Borsig is going to get nerfed
- apparently, some form of player education (tutorial?) is still planned
- when aiming at long distances via sniper mode, tanks sometimes move by “jerking” and “twitching” (SS: as in “teleporting short distances”), this is according to Storm not a glitch, at such distances the tank coordinates are transmitted by server less often to save traffic, it will stay the way it is (it is not a problem of client, but WG datacenters would not handle increased traffic)
- Storm personally picked the blue color for teamkillers :)
- apparently there are no plans for new tier 8 premiums in 9.1
- multiturret mechanism – not this year, it has really low priority
- the “damage blocked by armor” statistic is bugged (specifically, spaced armor apparently doesn’t count), it will be fixed
- developers considered reworking the arty aim circle to include the gun traverse
- 9.1 will bring many small optimization fixes, but no big ones
- RU251 German LT8 will come this year in the same patch as the US light tanks
- tier 8 light tanks will be buffed
- Storm states that despite the TD class bonus for camo after a shot will be removed (SS: eg. 128mm L/55 will remove the same number of camouflage on E-75 as on Borsig), Borsig will still be harder to spot, because it’s smaller
- T-35 will appear in very distant future, when there is the multiturret mechanism
- there will be no new big features in 9.1, WG is still dealing with fixing the issues from 9.0, there will be new shooting sounds though
I think the developers are on vacation, so let’s see the rest of that Raptr QA. The answers are by Jbots (some PR girl) and Major_Rampage (that name I know).
- WG stopping adding new tanks to WoT? “There is no plan on when to stop at this point. We will keep introducing as many new tanks as long as it makes sense for the game.” (SS: you wish…)
- 2014 is “the year of graphic updates”
- new “fun modes” are being worked on for WoT
- “We may implement more anti cheat functionality into the game, however we will not discuss how we will do this, as it would help people look for work arounds.” (SS: ah, so there is none after all, thought so)
This one made me giggle:
Q: “И так вопрос! Что ж вы пиндосы русских так не любите?” (A question: how come you faggots don’t love the Russians?)
A: “English please! Sorry, I only read one language :)” (SS: lucky you…)
However, there are other stronk answers as well:
“Seal Clubbing is something we definitely don’t support. Seals should not be drinking alcohol, and when they dance they look like fools. We have been looking into having bouncers placed outside of dance events to stop seals from entering clubs in the first place.”
This one is interesting:
- “Certain maps in matchmaking are chosen based on tank tier if you keep seeing the same map over and over, try switching out a tank tier.”
- no plans to change premium tank configuration
- bigger maps? ” It has been a long time desire to increase the maps sizes and support larger battles especially with Historical Battles. Technically, doubling the maps sizes and increasing teams to 30v30 would quadruple the server processing requirements. We will continue to pursue this goal, however it is not slated for the 2014 timeframe.”
- no bigger platoons than 3 are planned
Personal note: please don’t use Raptr for QA, guys… it’s terrible. And as for The_Chieftain chastising me for not recognizing you and giving you proper credit – use nicknames! Major_Rampage, that I know. Chris Jung? Not so much. That leads people to believe that instead of staff that clearly has experience with games, they get their answers from random PR department people.
The AMX-32 main battle tank is a further development of the commercially successful AMX-30. It's development began in 1975. The first prototype was revealed in 1982. This MBT was developed as a private venture for the export market, however it received no production orders. The AMX-32 has improved armor protection. Composite armor was used on the frontal arc of the hull and turret. The AMX-32 has an all-welded turret, in place of the cast one on it's predecessor. Side skirts were added for better protection of the hull. It was also fitted with NBC protection and automatic fire suppression systems.
The AMX-32 is armed with a non-stabilized 105-mm rifled gun, similar to that of the AMX-30. It was also offered with new 120-mm smoothbore gun. Both guns fire standard NATO 105-mm or 120-mm rounds respectively. Variant with a 120-mm gun can carry a total of 38 rounds.
The AMX-32 was fitted with new COTAS fire control system. It consists of ballistic computer, passive observation and sighting equipment and laser rangefinder. The main drawback of this main battle tank was a lack of gun stabilization equipment and it could not fire accurately on the move. Still it was claimed that the AMX-32 has a 90% hit probability against stationary target in 2 000 m range in day or night conditions.
Secondary armament consists of 20-mm cannon with independent elevation and a roof-mounted 7.62-mm machine gun.
The AMX-32 could be powered either by the Hispano-Suiza HS-110 multi-fuel diesel engine of the AMX-30 MBT, developing 720 hp, or uprated HS-110-S2 unit, fitted on improved AMX-30B2 and developing 780 hp. Chassis of the AMX-32 is very similar to that of the AMX-30 with few minor improvements. Vehicle was fitted with a deep wading kit and could ford water obstacles up to 4 meters deep.
In the early 1980s came the next in the GIAT manufactured, export-driven AMX series. As the AMX-32 had failed to attract any potential sales, the company decided to produce yet another upgrade. This was the AMX-40 Main Battle Tank. The development of the AMX-40 began in 1980 as a clean sheet design. In 1983 the first prototype was finished and presented at the Satory Exhibition of that year. Two further prototypes were produced in 1984; the last, fourth, was fabricated in 1985. The design was not intended for service in France, but as a successor to the AMX-32, the improved export version of the AMX-30. However the efforts to obtain foreign orders failed, the most serious potential customer to have considered the design being Spain. In 1990 it was no longer offered for export.
The tank was of fairly standard configuration, with the driver at the front, the turret in the center, housing a gunner, commander and loader, and the engine at the rear. Its armament consisted of a 120 millimetre calibre smoothbore gun, with an optionally coaxial 20 millimetre calibre F2 autocannon. The fire control system was the COTAC also used for the AMX 30 B2. As its dimensions were rather small: 6.8 metres (22 ft 4 in) long, 3.36 m (11 ft 0 in) wide and 2.38 m (7 ft 10 in) high at the turret roof, the ammunition load was limited to just 35 rounds. The tank was powered by a 1,100 horsepower (820 kW) Poyaud V12X diesel engine coupled to an automatic ZF transmission. The number of road wheels per side was increased from five to six, compared to the AMX-32.
The weight was limited to 43 metric tonnes. Though this, in combination with the powerful engine, ensured an excellent mobility, with 70 kilometres per hour (43 mph) maximum road speed and 50 km/h (31 mph) cross country speed, and a low operating cost, it limited protection. The front armour utilised laminated and perforated steel and protected against 100 millimetres (3.9 in) HEAT and APDS ammunition. Such 400 to 450 mm (15.7 to 17.7 in) RHA equivalency would have been considered quite formidable in 1980; in the late eighties it had become substandard due to missile and ammunition developments.
The type should not be confused with the pre-war experimental medium tank also called the AMX-40.
Original post here.
This tutorial will teach you how to edit the AI in Generals Zero Hour. I especially say Zero Hour, because Generals uses a different way of AI scripting.
Some generals information:
Generals (and Zero Hour) AI attack in waves. These are noted from 1 to 5. Wave 1 attacks are earlier in the game then wave 5 attacks. Wave 5 attacks always have much more and stronger units in them the wave 1 attacks. Easy AI only goes until wave 3. Medium goes to wave 4. Hard goes to wave 5.
Most teams use 3 paths that are in (almost) each map. These are CenterPath, FlankPath and BackdoorPath. Center is the most direct way from his base to his enemy's base. Flank is mostly from the side, and Backdoor is mostly from the other side, or from behind. If you play a map without these 3 paths, they always go directly to the enemy's base.
What do you need:
-FinalBig or XCC Mixer: these are to extract the files you need.
-Generals Zero Hour WorldBuilder (standard with each game): this is used for editing the AI.
-SkirmishScripts.SCB: this is the magic file you are going to edit.
Got everything? Ok, let's start
First you need to find the SkirmishScripts in your Zero Hour directory. If it is correct, you will find it in YourZHDirectory/Data/Script.
NOTE: Always make a backup of your original SkirmishScripts!
Now you have found it, start up WorldBuilder. After it is loaded, go to Edit-->Edit Player List. After this is opened, make sure there aren't any players in the list. Then you click on the button "Add Skirmish Players". Now the list is filled with all armies from the game. Click OK so you close the window.
Go to Edit-->Scripts. Now you will see a window with some buttons and folders with all armies in Generals Zero Hour. Before we are going to import the SkirmishScripts, de-select the "Auto Verify" option. This make importing and exporting scripts a lot faster.
Click on the "Import" button to import your script file. Search for your SkirmishScripts, and import it. This may take a while. If you have done it correct, you now can expand each folder into many sub-folders. It may look very confusing and overwhelming, but it isn't that difficult when you understand it. And above all, we not are going to edit those in this tutorial.
Click OK to close the window. Now go to Edit-->Edit Teams. Now a new window will open. In the left collum you have all armies. In the right column you have nothing (yet). This is the window where you can edit all the teams the AI builds (attack teams, dozers, supply units, etc.).
Click in the left column on the army you want to edit. Now the right column will be filled with all the teams this army can (and will) build. The teams the AI uses to attack you are like this:
AAA B CCC Wave DDD E
I will explain this code:
AAA = the army name (IE, America is USA, GLA is GLA, China is China)
B = the AI level that uses this attack (E is easy, M is medium, H is hard)
CCC = the number of the wave (as explained above)
DDD = the type of attack (mostly it says tanks or artillery)
E = the path the team takes to your base (C is center, F is flank, B is backdoor)
NOTE: you don't have to stick to this code, but it is useful so you can see which team is in which wave and uses which path.
Double-click on the team you want to edit, and a new window will pop up. You will see a lot of things you can edit. For the this tutorial, we only will edit middle part of this window, which is also the most important.
You can see a few columns which are called "Min", "Max" and "Unit Type". Min is minimal, and it says the minimal amount of units to be build of this type in this team. Max is the same as min, only it is the maximum amount of units. Unit Type is where you can select the type of unit to be build.
For each unit you must set it's Min, Max and Unit Type. As you can see, you can have a max of 7 units in 1 team. This is well enough, because else the teams would get to large. Edit the teams you want, and to close the Teams window, click OK, or all your work will be lost.
Go to Edit-->Scripts again. It may take a while to load this, so be patient. Once it is loaded, click on the "Export Script(s)" button.
A new window will pop up.
NOTE: Select the "Export all scripts" option, or only the selected scripts will be exported!
You may notice that the OK button is missing. This is EA's fault, but if you look good, you can see the top of the button on the bottom of the window. Click on it to export your scripts.
Now select your original SkirmishScripts, and click Save or OK. Now close WorldBuilder, start up Generals Zero Hour, select a skirmish map and the AI level you changed teams from, and test it
This was it all. Editing the AI in Generals Zero Hour is a bit more complicated the in RA2/TS, but when you know how to script a bit, you can do a lot of nice things.
Although the K1 and K1A1 were considered more than adequate to counter opposing North Korean tanks, most of which are obsolete and aging Soviet-era equipment such as the T-34 and the T-54/55, development was started in 1995 to create and field a new main battle tank with heavy emphasis on using domestic technologies. The intent was to further modernize the South Korean military and allow the vehicle to enter the export market without pressure from foreign nations due to licensing issues.
The Agency for Defense Development (Hangul: 국방과학연구소), or ADD, was given the task of developing a modern armored fighting vehicle with state-of-the-art technology. The design was finally deemed production-ready in 2006, following 11 years in development and a research budget expenditure of approximately US$230M.
Two major designs were under consideration during development: one fitted with a manned turret, and another fitted with an unmanned turret. The latter was scrapped in favour of the former at the early design stage. It was also originally planned for the K2 to field the experimental 140 mm smoothbore gun developed by German arm manufacturer Rheinmetall. This plan failed to materialize following Rheinmetall's decision to stop development due to the lack of foreseeable threats that their latest gun, the 120 mm / L55, could not defeat. The K2's gun was subsequently reconfigured to the L55, along with necessary modifications for ammunition capacity. The vehicle is, however, capable of mounting the 140 mm gun with minimum modifications should the need arise. The gun's autoloader is similar to the French Leclerc.
The Black Panther reached its production phase on March 2, 2007, when the first of the three production models rolled out of the assembly line in Changwon, South Korea. At that time, several media sources speculated that the K2's main gun was a L52 (6.24 m) main gun similar to the one used on the Leclerc. This was incorrect as the K2 uses a L55 (6.6 m) main gun.
The following agencies and companies are known to have participated
in the development and manufacturing process of the K2 Black Panther:
The Black Panther features a 1,500 horsepower (1,100 kW) 12 cylinder diesel engine (more powerful than the 1,200 horsepower (890 kW) engines of the K1 series of tanks), developed and manufactured by Doosan Infracore Corporation. Transmission was developed and manufactured by S&T Heavy Industries. The powerpack was not ready for service during early stages of prototype testing, and the MTU-890 was used as a temporary measure until the domestic powerpack could be manufactured. The new engine will be similar to the MTU-890.
The K2 can travel at speeds of up to 70 km/h on road surfaces, and maintain speeds of up to 52 km/h in off-road conditions. It can accelerate from 0 to 32 km/h within 7 seconds. It can also climb 60 degree slopes and vertical obstacles 1.3 meters in height. Due to the relatively compact design of the engine, the designers were able to fit an additional gas-turbine engine, developed by Samsung Techwin, which also provided many of the electronic components for the vehicle, into the remaining compartment space. It is capable of producing 100 horsepower (75 kW), and intended to act as an auxiliary power unit with which the tank may power its onboard systems, even when its main engines are turned off. It will also allow the tank to conserve fuel when idling and reduce the vehicle's overall thermal and acoustic signatures.
The vehicle can cross rivers as deep as 4.1 meters using a snorkel system, which also serves as a conning tower for the tank commander. The system takes approximately 30 minutes to prepare. The turret becomes watertight while fording, but the chassis can take in 440 liters (116 gallons) of water to prevent excessive buoyancy from air inside the vehicle and keep the tracks planted firmly on the ground. This is a considerable improvement over the K1 and K1A1, as those vehicles were only able to cross rivers up to 2.2 meters deep. Furthermore, the tank can enter combat-ready status as soon as it resurfaces.
The Black Panther fields an advanced suspension system, called the In-arm Suspension Unit (ISU). The K1 series currently uses a hybrid package of torsion bars in conjunction with a Hydropneumatic Suspension Unit (HSU). The ISU, which is installed on every bogie on the tracks, allows them to be individually controlled. Thus, the K2 will be able not only to "sit", "stand" and "kneel", but to "lean" towards a side or a corner as well. "Sitting" gives the tank a lower profile and offers better handling over roads. "Standing" gives the vehicle higher ground clearance and allows it to have better maneuverability over rough terrain. "Kneeling" increases the amount of angle that the tank's gun barrel can elevate and depress, which allows the tank to fire its main gun downhill and give it greater ability to engage low-flying aircraft. The new suspension unit also gives the tank an advantage when traveling on uneven terrain as the bogies can be adjusted on-the-fly to lessen vibration, as well as being lighter and simpler to maintain than the HSU.
The K2's main armament is an indigenous L55 120 mm smoothbore gun, developed under license by ADD and manufactured by World Industries Ace Corporation. It also deploys a 12.7 mm K-6 heavy machine gun and a 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun. The ammunition for the main gun is loaded in a 16-shell magazine, with a total ammunition capacity of 40.
The autoloader enables the tank to fire up to 15 rounds per minute, or one round every four seconds, without being affected by the gun's angle. It has recently been confirmed by GIAT that the K2 autoloader's design is derived from that of GIAT's Leclerc. Despite the similarity of the two autoloaders, many of the components of the two designs are not interchangeable.
The K2's primary anti-tank munition is an indigenously developed and improved tungsten APFSDS kinetic energy penetrator. This new munition offers significantly greater penetration than the current generation of tungsten rounds through better heat treatment of the tungsten alloy and a technique referred to as the "self-sharpening process". The latter works by making the tungsten core sharpen rather than deform during the penetration of armor. For attacking unhardened targets, the K2 can use a newly designed multi-purpose HEAT chemical energy round, which is similar to the U.S. M830A1 HEAT MP-T, providing good offensive capabilities against personnel, unarmored and lightly armored vehicles on the ground as well as low-flying helicopters.
The KSTAM (Korean Smart Top-Attack Munition) is a top-attack anti-tank munition designed specifically for use with the Black Panther. This projectile is fired in a high trajectory profile comparable to that of a mortar or that of long-range artillery. It should be emphasized that this is not an anti-tank missile—it does not contain any rocket propellant or motors, and travels through the air solely with the kinetic energy applied to it during the initial propulsion from the main cannon. The KSTAM round does, however, house internal guidance and obstacle-avoidance systems, in the form of a small millimeter band radar, IR and radiometer sensors. Should the need arise, it also has a limited ability to be manually controlled via live data link with the launch vehicle. Upon reaching its designated target area, a parachute deploys, giving the onboard radar system and sensors enough time to seek and acquire stationary or moving targets and fire its explosively formed penetrator from a top-down position, offering excellent anti-tank capabilities due to less protection present at top armor of turrets and hulls of tanks. Due to the fire-and-forget nature of these rounds, the launch vehicle can remain concealed behind cover while firing successive rounds towards the known location of an enemy. It can also provide effective indirect fire support against targets hidden behind obstacles and structures. The minimum range of the munition is 2 km, while the maximum range is 8 km.
The K2 will be equipped with a millimeter band radar system, located at the frontal arc of the turret, along with the traditional laser range-finder and crosswind sensor. This will be complemented by an advanced Fire Control System (FCS), that will allow it to track and engage low-flying aircraft with the main gun quickly and accurately, as well as detect incoming projectiles fired at the tank. The FCS is capable of a "lock-on" mode to maintain acquisition of a specific target, with the system calculating, adjusting and updating the target's information constantly, and allowing the tank to fire while moving without significant loss of accuracy. The lock-on mode can acquire and track its target using thermal optics integrated to the FCS up to 9.8 km away.
Another subtle, but significant, feature of the Black Panther's FCS is a built-in trigger-delay mechanism. Other main battle tanks, including the French Leclerc (the closest counterpart to the Black Panther in terms of electronics, sensors and fire control system) can miss their target while moving, if they open fire at the very moment they hit an uneven terrain feature. The designers foresaw this and compensated by installing a simple mechanism consisting of a tiny laser emitter and receiver linked to the FCS. The laser emitter is installed near the top of the gun barrel, with the receiver being placed at the base. The gun can only be fired when the receiver is precisely aligned with the emitting laser. An example of the mechanism's usage is when the gunner presses the trigger, which is linked directly to the FCS, and the tank comes upon an irregularity on the terrain at the same moment, the laser will find itself off the mark by the sudden shaking and the FCS will delay the round from being fired until the very moment when the laser beam is re-aligned to the receiver again as the barrel shakes up and down repeatedly, where the FCS will automatically fire the gun by itself. This system, combined with an advanced gun stabilizer and fire control system, will significantly improve the tank's ability to hit its target while moving on uneven terrain.
The KGPS (Korean Gunner's Primary Sight) and the KCPS (Korean Commander's Panoramic Sight) are present in the Black Panther as in the original series of K1A1 tanks. The optics system on the Black Panther, however, will be further modified to utilize the advantages of the sensors and armaments offered on the new vehicle.
The commander of the tank has the ability to override the command to take control of the turret and gun from the gunner. Moreover, unconfirmed reports state that, in the event of an emergency, the vehicle can be operated by only two, or even a single, crew member. It is speculated that the FCS can automatically spot and track visible targets, compare them using the data link established with other friendly vehicles to prevent redundant target engagements, and fire its main gun without manual input.
Details on the composite armor of the Black Panther are unknown. The
frontal armor has been proven to be effective at defeating the 120 mm
APFSDS round fired from the L55 gun. Explosive Reactive Armor blocks are also present, with the addition of Non-Explosive Reactive Armor planned for the K2 PIP version (See below).
Defense against incoming missiles is currently provided by a soft-kill anti-missile system. The K2 PIP will likely deploy a hard-kill anti-missile defense system when it is released within the next few years.
The vehicle's millimeter band radar system can double as a Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS). The vehicle's computer in turn can triangulate incoming projectiles, immediately warn the vehicle crew and fire off Visual and Infrared Screening Smoke
(VIRSS) grenades, which can effectively block optical, infrared and
radar signatures. Once the hard-kill AMS is installed, the radar system
will also be responsible for tracking and targeting the incoming
missiles for the AMS. The K2 also has a Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) and radar jammer. Four all-bearing Laser warning receivers
(LWR) are also present to alert the crew should the vehicle become
"painted", and the computer can also fire off VIRSS grenades in the
direction that the beam is coming from.
An automatic fire-suppression system is programmed to detect and
put out any internal fires that may occur, and atmospheric sensors alert
the crew if the tank enters a hazardous environment.
The K2 houses the following features which help to improve situational awareness for the crew:
Work is also under way to integrate the XAV unmanned wheeled reconnaissance vehicle into the Black Panther's systems, giving the tank's crew the ability to remotely scout an area without exposing its position.
The K2 PIP is an improved version of the initial production model of
the K2 that will be released within the next few years. Improvements
The prospective cost of a single K2 unit currently stands at approximately ₩8.3 billion Korean won, or around US$6.9 million per unit, as of third quarter of 2010. This is almost twice the current cost of a K1A1, the last batch of which is priced at ₩4.5bn per unit, or around US$3.8M in today's production.
However, it should be noted that manufacturing costs for the K2 will likely decrease once the tank enters mass production and is offered for sale internationally.
After competing against the Leclerc and Leopard 2, the K2 finally established its first export customer in Turkey. In June 2007, South Korea and Turkey successfully negotiated an arms deal contract worth ₩500 billion (approximately US$540 million) licensing the design of the K2, as well as exporting 40(+15) KT-1 trainer planes, to Turkey.
As early as 1937, Czech company Škoda's workshops began work on a new medium tank, an upgraded version of the previous, successful Lt vz. 35, which was originally a light tank. This led to the building of two prototypes, designated S-II-c. But their construction dragged on until the Czech Republic was annexed by Nazi Germany and the factory was taken over. As designed, the S-II-c weighed 16.5 ton, still light for medium standards, and equipped with a 47 mm (1.85 in) Škoda A9 vz. 38 gun, two machine guns (one coaxial with the gun, one in the hull). The armor was improved to 30 mm (1.18 in), and the engine was upgraded to 13.8 liters, giving 250 hp (183.87 kW), providing a max speed in excess of 50 km/h (31 mph). After German occupation and Skoda being controlled by the Waffenamt, both prototypes were redesignated T-21 and work was resumed. In turn, a new prototype, designated T-22 was given to Hungary in 1941. Hungarian engineers then devised a whole range of modifications.
The T-22 was completely overhauled, starting with the fitting of a new gun, of lesser caliber but much higher velocity and faster reloading, the 40 mm (1.57 in) Škoda A17, which was also the main Hungarian anti-tank gun. Thus ammunition supplies were not a problem. More so the armor was revised and new plates were bolted-on, giving a total thickness of 50 mm (1.97 in) instead of 30 mm (1.18 in), equivalent to the new upgraded versions of the Panzer III and IV. The weight rose to 18 tons. The design was largely based on the previous LT vz. 35, and the suspension was similar, with two sets of bogies on each side, each with eighteen paired roadwheels, sprung by leaf springs. There was also a single set of tender wheels at the front. The drive sprockets were also at the front, idlers at the rear. However, the upper part of the hull was completely rebuilt, with the rear engine compartment being roomier and better ventilated. There was also a brand new turret, large enough for three men, but lower than the LT vz. 35 turret. The entire hull was bolted and slightly longer. The tracks were enlarged and supported by five return rollers.
The Turán I was armed with the standard Hungarian anti-tank and anti-aircraft gun, which used Bofors ammunition, still supplied by Sweden and already available in large stocks. With the added armor, the maximum speed was reduced to 47 km/h (29.2 mph). However this armor was not sloped and presented near-flat surfaces to incoming rounds. Production started at the end of 1941 and ended in 1943, after 285 had been built. The factories involved were Weiss Manfréd (70), Magyar Waggongyár (70), Mávag (50) and Ganz from Budapest (45). By 1943, many Turán Is received spaced side skirt protections similar to the German Schürzen system.
The standard 40 mm (1.57 in) gun was completely inefficient against the Russian T-34 and KV-1, so Hungarian designers attempted to mount a 75 mm (2.95 in) M41 short barrel, derived from the Bohler M18 field gun, on a prototype to perform various tests on flat and sloped armors. The turret was enlarged to house the massive breech loading system and a special armored recoil piston was adapted to the gun. This made the turret interior cramped and crowded. New vents were designed to extract the massive fume following the blast. The 41M Turán II first appeared in May 1943, was produced to an extent of 139 between 1943 and 1944, ending with the Soviet occupation of Hungary.
The Turan III was the last, upgraded version, equipped with the German 75 mm (2.95 in) KwK 40 L43 gun adopted on the Panzer IV Ausf J, and a revised turret which integrated large side covers around the commander cupola. It was designed to receive side skirts from the start, which in turn equipped Turán's I/II. A single prototype was built in 1944, but the development was stopped as Panzer IVs were now supplied in large numbers. Another vehicle using this gun was an attempt to imitate the success of the German StuG, while converting the chassis into a SPG. Two were built using the same modified hull. The Zrinyi-I, a tank hunter fitted with the KwK-40 L43, which remained as a prototype since the Panzerjäger 38(t) Hetzer and other German tank hunters were also largely supplied, and the Zrinyi-II, equipped with a short barrel 105 mm (4.13 in) MAVAG 40/43M L20.5 and improved protection (75 mm/2.95 in sloped glacis). 60 were built between 1943-44.
All the Turán I/IIs built were used by the 1st and 2nd Hungarian Armored Divisions, but also the 1st Cavalry Division, and saw their first operational commitment early on in 1944, in Galicia, were they were completely outclassed by Russian's T-34 and IS-I/II. They failed to achieve their objectives and were butchered by the dozen. The 2nd Armored Division itself lost in this counter-offensive three quarters of its strength in a matter of hours. They also fought at Debrecen with the same results. The remnants tried to stop the Soviet advance towards Budapest or were simply abandoned on the spot. When the campaign was over in February 1945, the Soviets managed to capture many Hungarian tanks. One is now displayed now at the Kubinka museum.
Dimensions 4.55 x 2.44 x 2.39 m (14x8x7.8 ft) Maximum weight, battle ready 18.2 tons Crew 5 (driver, commander, gunner, loader, co-gunner/radioman) Propulsion Gasoline Manfred Weiss-Z, 260 hp (195 kW) Top Speed 47 km/h (29 mph), p/w ratio 14 hp/ton Operational Range 165 km (102 mi) Armament Main : 40 mm (1.57 in) Škoda A17
Secondary: 2x 7.92 mm (0.31 in) 38M Gebauer machine guns Armor Maximum 50 mm (1.97 in) Production (Turán I) 285
As early as 1937, Czech company Škoda's workshops began work on a new
medium tank, an upgraded version of the previous, successful Lt vz. 35,
which was originally a light tank. This led to the building of two
prototypes, designated S-II-c. But their construction dragged on until
the Czech Republic was annexed by Nazi Germany and the factory was taken
over. As designed, the S-II-c weighed 16.5 ton, still light for medium
standards, and equipped with a 47 mm (1.85 in) Škoda A9 vz. 38 gun, two
machine guns (one coaxial with the gun, one in the hull). The armor was
improved to 30 mm (1.18 in), and the engine was upgraded to 13.8 liters,
giving 250 hp (183.87 kW), providing a max speed in excess of 50 km/h
(31 mph). After German occupation and Skoda being controlled by the
Waffenamt, both prototypes were redesignated T-21 and work was resumed.
In turn, a new prototype, designated T-22 was given to Hungary in 1941.
Hungarian engineers then devised a whole range of modifications.
The T-22 was completely overhauled, starting with the fitting of a new
gun, of lesser caliber but much higher velocity and faster reloading,
the 40 mm (1.57 in) Škoda A17, which was also the main Hungarian
anti-tank gun. Thus ammunition supplies were not a problem. More so the
armor was revised and new plates were bolted-on, giving a total
thickness of 50 mm (1.97 in) instead of 30 mm (1.18 in), equivalent to
the new upgraded versions of the Panzer III and IV. The weight rose to
18 tons. The design was largely based on the previous LT vz. 35, and the
suspension was similar, with two sets of bogies on each side, each with
eighteen paired roadwheels, sprung by leaf springs. There was also a
single set of tender wheels at the front. The drive sprockets were also
at the front, idlers at the rear. However, the upper part of the hull
was completely rebuilt, with the rear engine compartment being roomier
and better ventilated. There was also a brand new turret, large enough
for three men, but lower than the LT vz. 35 turret. The entire hull was
bolted and slightly longer. The tracks were enlarged and supported by
five return rollers.
The Turán I was armed with the standard Hungarian anti-tank and
anti-aircraft gun, which used Bofors ammunition, still supplied by
Sweden and already available in large stocks. With the added armor, the
maximum speed was reduced to 47 km/h (29.2 mph). However this armor was
not sloped and presented near-flat surfaces to incoming rounds.
Production started at the end of 1941 and ended in 1943, after 285 had
been built. The factories involved were Weiss Manfréd (70), Magyar
Waggongyár (70), Mávag (50) and Ganz from Budapest (45). By 1943, many
Turán Is received spaced side skirt protections similar to the German
The standard 40 mm (1.57 in) gun was completely inefficient against the
Russian T-34 and KV-1, so Hungarian designers attempted to mount a 75
mm (2.95 in) M41 short barrel, derived from the Bohler M18 field gun, on
a prototype to perform various tests on flat and sloped armors. The
turret was enlarged to house the massive breech loading system and a
special armored recoil piston was adapted to the gun. This made the
turret interior cramped and crowded. New vents were designed to extract
the massive fume following the blast. The 41M Turán II first appeared in
May 1943, was produced to an extent of 139 between 1943 and 1944,
ending with the Soviet occupation of Hungary.
The Turan III was the last, upgraded version, equipped with the German
75 mm (2.95 in) KwK 40 L43 gun adopted on the Panzer IV Ausf J, and a
revised turret which integrated large side covers around the commander
cupola. It was designed to receive side skirts from the start, which in
turn equipped Turán's I/II. A single prototype was built in 1944, but
the development was stopped as Panzer IVs were now supplied in large
numbers. Another vehicle using this gun was an attempt to imitate the
success of the German StuG, while converting the chassis into a SPG. Two
were built using the same modified hull. The Zrinyi-I, a tank hunter
fitted with the KwK-40 L43, which remained as a prototype since the
Panzerjäger 38(t) Hetzer and other German tank hunters were also largely
supplied, and the Zrinyi-II, equipped with a short barrel 105 mm (4.13
in) MAVAG 40/43M L20.5 and improved protection (75 mm/2.95 in sloped
glacis). 60 were built between 1943-44.
All the Turán I/IIs built were used by the 1st and 2nd Hungarian
Armored Divisions, but also the 1st Cavalry Division, and saw their
first operational commitment early on in 1944, in Galicia, were they
were completely outclassed by Russian's T-34 and IS-I/II. They failed to
achieve their objectives and were butchered by the dozen. The 2nd
Armored Division itself lost in this counter-offensive three quarters of
its strength in a matter of hours. They also fought at Debrecen with
the same results. The remnants tried to stop the Soviet advance towards
Budapest or were simply abandoned on the spot. When the campaign was
over in February 1945, the Soviets managed to capture many Hungarian
tanks. One is now displayed now at the Kubinka museum.
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The Tank, Heavy Assault, Tortoise (A39) was a British heavy assault
tank design developed in World War II but never put into mass
production. It was developed for the task of clearing heavily fortified
areas and as a result favored armour protection over mobility. Although
heavy, at 78 tons, and not readily transported, it was reliable and a
good gun platform
In the early part of 1943 the Allied forces anticipated considerable
resistance in the projected future invasion of Europe, with the enemy
fighting from heavily fortified positions such as the Siegfried Line. As
a result, a new class of vehicles emerged, in the shape of Assault
tanks, which placed maximum armour protection at a higher priority than
mobility. Initially, work was concentrated on the Excelsior tank (A33),
based on the Cromwell tank. There was also a program to upgrade the
armour of the Churchill tank. For similar work in the Far East, the
Valiant tank (A38), based on the Valentine tank was considered although
weight was specified to be as low as possible.
The Secretary of State for War and the Minister of Supply issued a
Joint Memorandum in April 1943 which gave a vague specification for an
Assault tank, classing it as a special purpose vehicle to operate in
heavily defended areas as part of the specialist 79th Armoured Division.
The Nuffield Organisation responded with 18 separate designs (AT-1
through AT-18) drafted between May 1943 and February 1944, each design
larger and heavier than the last. By February 1944 design AT-16 was
complete and was approved by the Tank Board who proposed that month that
25 be produced directly from the mock up stage without bothering with a
prototype, to be available for operational service in September 1945.
An order for 25 was placed by the War Office and work was begun.
Following the end of the war the order was reduced and only 6 vehicles
were built. One example was sent to Germany for trials where it was
found to be mechanically reliable and a powerful and accurate gun
platform, however at a weight of 80 tons and a height of 10 feet (3.0 m)
it was extremely slow and proved difficult to transport.
Since the Tortoise had a fixed casemate superstructure instead of a
turret, it can be classified as a self-propelled gun or an assault gun
and not a tank. The crew included a commander, driver, and gunner, with
two loaders for the 32-pounder gun and two machine gunners. Internally
it was split into three compartments, the transmission to the front, the
crew in the center and the Rolls-Royce Meteor engine at the rear. The
suspension consisted of four bogies on each side each of the hull. Each
bogie had two pairs of wheels, with each pair linked to a transverse
torsion bar. The Merritt-Brown transmission was fitted with an all speed
reverse, giving approximately the same speed backwards as forwards.
The Ordnance QF 32 pounder gun design was adapted from the
British 3.7 inch anti-aircraft gun. The ammunition used a separate
charge and shell, the latter a 32 pound (14.5 kg) armour piercing shot
(APCBC). In tests the gun was successful against a German Panther tank
at nearly 1,000 yards. The 32-pdr gun was mounted in a power-assisted
limited traverse mounting; rather than being mounted on the more
traditional trunnions, it protruded through a large ball mount in the
front of the hull, protected by 225 mm armour. To the left of it was a
Besa machine gun in an armoured ball mount. A further two Besa machine
guns were mounted in a turret on the top of the hull to the right.
One of the six prototype Tortoises constructed of mild steel has been
preserved at the Bovington Tank Museum in Bovington, UK. The vehicle is
in running condition. A 2011 overhaul saw it running under its own
power for the first time since the 1950s. It was shown to the public in
June 2011 at Tankfest 2011, the Bovington museum's annual display of
A Tortoise, without its gun, lies on the Kirkcudbright military training
area near Kirkcudbright, Scotland. Other damage to the tank and the
designation of the Kirkcudbright training area as a Site of Special
Scientific Interest mean that removal of the Tortoise to a museum is now
Conqueror MK II
The chassis for the new tank was taken from the A45 Infantry Support
Tank, started in 1944 shortly after that of the A41 Centurion. After the
war the project was relocated to that of the "Universal Tank" design of
the FV 200 series. The 200 series was to have used a common hull for
all uses (self-propelled artillery, armoured personnel carrier,
different varieties of tank, etc.). One tank type was to be the heavy FV
201 of 55 tonnes, armed with an 83.4 mm gun also known as 20 pounder.
In 1949 it was decided to bring the armament up to 120 mm. As
this delayed the project, in 1952 the FV 201 hull was combined with a 17
pounder-armed Centurion Mk 2 turret to give the FV 221 Caernarvon Mark
I. Twenty-one were built with the Mk III 20 pounder turret as the
Caernavon Mk II. The FV 221 may originally have been intended to be the
"Main Battle Tank" member of the FV 201 series, but with the success of
the A41 Centurion such a vehicle was no longer required. In either
event, the Caernarvon was only used for chassis development work serving
in troop trials. In 1955 the first Conqueror was produced. Twenty Mark 1
and 165 Mark 2 Conquerors were built including conversions of Caernavon
MkIIs. Production continued until 1959. It had lost much enthusiasm
once the Centurion was upgraded to an L7 105 mm gun.
The gun design was American, the same as used on the US M103
heavy tank; with separate charge and projectile, as would also be the
case in the Chieftain that followed. The charge was not bagged but in a
brass cartridge, which offered some safety advantages, but reduced shell
capacity to 35 rounds.
The armour was very heavy for the time, especially in the front,
where it was seven inches (178 mm) in the horizontal plane.
Unfortunately, this, along with the weight of the huge turret required
to house the large gun and the very large hull volume, made the vehicle
very heavy, giving it a relatively low top speed and making it
mechanically unreliable. Also, few bridges could support its weight.
However, rather like the Second World War Churchill tank, the Conqueror
had exceptional terrain handling characteristics and proved to be as
capable cross country as the lighter (and on paper slightly faster)
One feature of particular note was the rotating commander's
cupola, which was at the heart of the Conqueror's fire control system,
advanced for its time. The commander could align the cupola on a target
independently of the turret, measure the range with a Coincidence
rangefinder, and then direct the gunner on to the new lay mechanically
indicated to him by the cupola. In theory, when the gunner traversed to
the new lay he would find the target already under his sights, ready to
be engaged. Meanwhile, the commander was free to search for the next
target. (The Soviet bloc also used similar devices, such as the TPKU-2
and TKN-3, on all of their post–World War II tanks though theirs did not
use a rangefinder.)
The system may have been inspired by a similar device, without
range finder, installed in WII German Panzers which was apparently
highly successful, but was not repeated in subsequent tanks until an
updated electronic version of the same idea appeared in the American
M60A2 variant of the Patton series.
Conqueror MK I at the Bovington tank museum.
FV 222 Conqueror ARV Mk II
The variants of the Conqueror tank and developments directly related to its development are:
FV 214 Conqueror
- Mk I
- Mk II
- Mk II/I/H[verification needed] - rebuilt Caernarvons
- FV 215b
- Design study of Conqueror chassis with limited traverse turret mounting 183mm gun. Wooden mockup produced.
FV 221 Caernarvon
- Mk I – prototype
- Mk II - experimental series, 21 built
FV 222 Conqueror Armoured Recovery Vehicle (ARV)
- Mk I - 8 produced
- Mk II - 20 produced. Weight: 57 tons. Winch capacity: 45 tons (direct pull).
In the United Kingdom, Conqueror tanks are displayed at the Bovington
Tank Museum, and the Land Warfare Hall of the Imperial War Museum
Duxford. Other tanks are in the collections of the Musée des Blindés in
France, the Royal Museum of the Army in Brussels and the Kubinka Tank
Museum, Russia. One is privately owned in the United States as part of
the Littlefield Collection. There are also two MkII ARVs at the Military
History Museum on the Isle of Wight in an unrestored condition. A MkII
ARV is held by theREME Museum of Technology, although it is not on
display. There used to be a Conqueror at Base Vehicle Depot Ludgershall -
a gate guardian named "William". Now believed to be at the Isle of
Wight Military Museum. A Conqueror was used at the Amphibious
Experimental Establishment AXE, at Instow in North Devon UK, for beach
tank recovery practise.